Makers and inventors

Abbe Ernst
German physicist and astronomer (1840-1905). He improved the microscope and he invented the prism that bears his name.

Æpinus (Franz Maria Ulrich Theodosius Hoch)
German doctor (1724-1802). He imagined the first electric capacitor that bears his name.

Amici Giovanni Battista
Italian astronomer, optician, naturalist and engineer (1786-1863). He built very perfect achromatic microscopes, some optical instruments of great interest. He studied fertilization of plants and on the vegetal pathology. He described some muscular fibres that bear his name.

Arago Jean François Dominique
French physicist and astronomer (1786-1853). In 1811 He discovered the chromatic polarisation of the light, in 1817 with Fresnel it discovered circular polarisation, and in 1819 he enunciated the law on the interference of polarised light.

Siracusan mathematician and physicist (287-213 B.C.). He was among the greatest in Ancient Times. His name is connected to studies and inventions as: then lever, the burton, worm, hydrostatics, the calculus of volumes and areas.

d'Arsonval Jacques Arsène
French physiologist(1851 - 1940)

Ampère André Marie
French physicist (1775 -1836). He studied physics, chemistry, mathematics and natural sciences. He made fundamental researches on electrodynamics. Laws on the electromagnetism.

Barlow Peter
English (1776 - 1862). He built the prototype of the electric engine called Barlow wheel. He perfected the achromatic telescope.

Baumé Antoine
French chemist (1728-1804). He built the areometer that bears his name.

Beccaria Giovanni Battista
Italian Physicist (1716-1781). He made researches on electrostatics and geodesy. Professor at the Turin the University.

Bell Alexandr Graham
USA (1774-1922). He patented the telephone.

Biot Jean-Baptiste
French physicist and astronomer (1774-1862). Il fit de recherches sur l’électromagnétisme et sur la polarisation de la lumière.

Bourdon Eugène
French (1808-1884). He invented the metallic manometer with the curved tube and a type of aneroid barometer.

Boyle Robert
Irish chemist and physicist (1627 - 1691). With Mariotte in 1662 he enunciated the law that bears their name.

Braun Karl Ferdinand
German scientist (1850-1918). He made researches on electricity and on radio transmission. He invented the tube for the study of cathode rays from which derive the oscillators and the cathode rays thermoelectric tubes. Nobel Prize in 1909.

Breguet Louis
French watchmaker (1804-1885). He built many instruments among which the electric telegraph with two needles, and at Foucault’s request toothed wheel to measure the light speed.

Brewster David
English physics professor (1781-1868). He wrote an optics treatise and He studied crystallography and descriptive mineralogy.

Bunsen Robert Wilhem
German chemist and physicist (1811-1899). He invented many instruments: the burner, the calorimeter, and the support.

Cagniard de la Tour Charles
Physicist French (1777-1859). He invented the siren, so called because it works in the air and in the water.

Cavendish Henry
English chemist and physicist (1731-1810). He studied the hydrogen, the composition of air and of water and He obtained the atmospheric nitrogen fixation. He invented the torsion balance that bears his name.

Chladni Ernst
German physicist (1756-1828). He studied acoustics.

Coulomb Charles Augustin
French physicist (1736-1806). He studied electricity and magnetism. Coulomb Law. Theorem of Coulomb.

Crookes William
English physicist and chemist (1832-1919). He isolated thallium; he invented the spinthariscope, the radiometer, the method of amalgamation of sodium to separate gold and silver from minerals and the high vacuum tubes that bears his name.

Daniel John Frederic
English physicist (1790-1845). He studied electrolysis and meteorology. He invented the hygrometer and a cell with a depolarising liquid.

Davy Humphry
English chemist (1778-1829). He isolated sodium, polonium and calcium and he made electromechanical researches on the nitrogen compounds. He invented the safety lamp for miners.

De La Rive Auguste Arthur
Swiss physicist (1801-1873). He was one of the founders of the electrochemical theory of the batteries.

Descartes René
French philosopher and mathematician (1596-1650). We owe him the method of the coordinates that allow the passage from algebra to geometry and vice versa. He gave great contributions to optics and mechanics.

Despretz César Mansuète
French physicist (1789-1863). He studied the carbon arc and made researches on the elastic and thermal properties of fluids.

Dutrochet René
French biologist (1776-1847). He is one of the founders of the biology. He wrote works on the osmosis, on the diapedesis and so on.

Einthoven Willem
Dutch doctor (1860-1927). He gave fundamental contributions in cardiology. He set up the electrocardiograph. String galvanometer of E.

Fahrenheit Daniel Gabriel
German physicist (1686-1736). He invented the F. temperature scale and the F. hydrometer

Faraday Michael
English physicist (1791-1867). He discovered that mobile magnets and varying currents induce currents in metallic conductors. He introduced the field concept. He enunciated the electrolysis laws. He discovered the action of the magnetic field on a polarised light. Faraday's Hood.

Ferraris Galileo
Italian engineer and physicist (1847-1897). He discovered the principle of the rotating magnetic field that allowed the construction of electric motors. He built the first model of them in 1885. He studied the alternate currents and the transmission of electric energy.

Foucault Léon
French physicist (1819-1868). With the pendulum that bears his name he demonstrated the Earth rotation experimentally. With Fizeau he measured light speed. He discovered the induced currents that bear his name.

Franklin Benjamin
Statesman, physicist and writer of United States (1706-1790). He made researches on the electric phenomena that he allowed to discover the needle capacity and to build the lighting rod.

Fresnel Augustin Jean
French physicist and mathematician (1788-1827). He made researches on the propagation of the light. He proposed a mathematical theory to explain many optical phenomena.

Galilei Galileo
Italian scientist (1564-1642). He is considered one of the founders of the experimental method. He enunciated the inertia principle, the laws on the fall of the bodies and the isochronisms of the pendulum. For religious raisons, he was obliged to repudiate the Copernican theory

Galton Francis
English naturalist (1822-1911). He built a whistle to study the limits of audibility.

Galvani Luigi
Italian doctor (17361798). He observed that he could produce contractions by touching the muscles of a skinned frog with a bimetallic arc. (The explanation of the phenomenon was given by Volta). He studies are n the basis of modern electrophysiology.

Geissler Heinrich
German physicist (1815-1879). He invented the tube with two electrodes containing a rarefied gas in which an electric discharge provokes a great luminosity. They are used for neon signs.

Gramme Zénobe Théophile
Belgian maker (1826-1901). He made the first commercial current generator.

Guericke Otto von
German physicist (1602-1686). He built a vacuum pump for researches on the atmospheric pressure. His experiment with the Magdebourg hemispheres is famous.

Hefner-Alteneck Friedrich (von)
German electrochemist (1845-1904). He brought many technical and building technical improvements to the dynamo and to electric engines.

Heron of Alexandria
Greek mathematician and engineer (II sec B.C.). To him we owe formula for the calculus of area of a triangle by using the sides. He studied the properties of the siphons, and invented the eliopile.

Hertz Heinrich Rudolf
German physicist (1857-1894). He is fundamental for the discovery of the electromagnetic waves. He succeeds in obtaining them by provoking oscillating discharges of very high frequency and they by picking them up with detecting circuits.

Holtz Wilhem
German physicist (1836-1893). He made studies on electrical phenomena. In 1865 he invented the engine that bears his name.

Hope Thomas Charles
English chemist (1766-1844). Hope’s experiment shows that water reaches its maximum density at 4° centigrade.

Hughes David Edward
English (1831-1900). English (1831-1900). He invented a writing telegraph and the carbon microphone.

Ingenhousz Jan
Dutch naturalist (1730-1799). He discovered chlorophyll photosynthesis. He studied thermal conductivity.

Joule James Prescott
English physicist (1818-1889). He introduced and measured the thermal equivalent of the work. Joule’s effect of the currents. The Joule-Thomsom effect on the decreasing of the temperature of a gas in an adiabatic expansion.

Kirchhoff Gustav Robert Georg
German physicist e mathematician (1822-1887). He proposed the laws of the circuits and of the emittance of the blackbody. He proposed a new f ormulation of thermodynamics laws. With Bunsen invented the spectroscope and this led to the discovery of curium and the rubidium thanks to the spectral analysis.

Kohlraush Friedrich Wilhem Georg
German physicist (1840-1910). He was interested in electricity, magnetism and optics and built many instruments.

König Rudolph
French physicist of German origin (1832-1901). In Paris he founded a workshop for building instruments to study the sounds. Among the other things he invented the manometric capsule.

Kundt August
German physicist (1839-1894). He studied the waves. Kundt’s tube for standing waves.

Lane Timothy
English chemist (1743-1807).

Laplace Pierre Simon de
French astronomer and mathematician (1749-1827). He made important researches on celestial mechanics and he gave remarkable contributions in mathematics.

Laurent Léon Louis
French optician and precision mechanic (1840-1909). He built many measure and precision instruments and in particular the polarimeter that bears his name.

Lavoisier Antoine Laurent
French scientist (1743-1792). He is considered as the founder of modern chemistry.

Leclanché Georges
French engineer (1839-1882). He invented the cell that bears his name.

Leslie John
Scottish physicist e mathematician (1766-1832). He invented the differential thermometer.

Lissajous Jule Antoine
French physicist (1822-1880). He made researches on optics and on acoustics. Lissajous figures.

Lodge Oliver Joseph
English physicist (1851-1940). He studied electro physics and in particular electrical discharges.

Lummer Otto
German physicist (1860-1923). He studied optics and photometry. Lummer-Gehrcke plate.

Maelzel Nepomek
German inventor (1772-1838). He invented many musical instruments and the metronome.

Marconi Guglielmo
Italian scientist and inventor (1874-1937). In 1901 he opened the first radio connection between Great Britain and North America. Nobel Prize en 1909.

Mariotte Edmé
French physicist (1620-1648). He made researches on the mechanics of the gases. Boyle-Mariotte law.

Mascart Eleutère Elie
French physicist (1837-1908). He made researches on magnetism and on atmospheric electricity.

Maxwell James Clerk
English physicist and mathematician (1831-1879). He proposed the theory on electromagnetism and studied the kinetic theory of the gases.

Melloni Macedonio
Italian physicist (1798-1845). He studied the propagation of the heat for irradiation and on the absorption and the emission of the heat by the bodies.

Mohr Friedrich
German chemist (1806-1879). He studied on chemistry and on pharmaceutical.

Morse Samuel Finley Breese
Inventor of the United States (1791-1872). In 1884 he made the first electric telegraph.

Newton Isaac
English physicist and mathematician (1642-1777). He enunciated the mechanics laws. He made important researches on the light. In mathematics he is considered, with Leibniz, the founder of calculus.

Nicholson William
English physicist (1753-1815). He discovered the electrolysis phenomenon without giving a good interpretation.

Nobili Leopoldo
Italian physicist (1787-1835). He built the first thermopile and invented a type of galvanometer with high sensibility.

German chemist (1853-1932). Director of the institute of chemistry and physics in Leipzig, he was interested in thermodynamics. Nobel Prize for the chemistry.

Oersted Hans Christian
Danish physicist (1777-1851). He discovered the interaction between current and magnet. He invented the piezometer.

Pacinotti Antonio
Italian physicist (1841-1912). He invented the ring prototype of the generators of electric current and of electric engines.

Palmieri Luigi
Italian physicist (1807-1896). Director of the astronomic observatory of Naples.

Pascal Blaise
French scientist and philosopher (1623-1662). He studied the vacuum, the atmospheric pressure, and the liquids equilibrium. He was interested in the probability theory. He built the first model of calculator.

Plateau Joseph Antoine Ferdinand
Belgian physicist (1810-1883). He studied the liquid plates and the shape of liquid masses in rotation. He made the phenachistoscope and in the same times as S. Stampfer the stroboscope.

Plücker Julius
German mathematician (1801-1868). His studies regarded the geometry (pluckerian coordinates). In physics he made researches on the magnetic properties of the crystals and on the electric discharges in the gases.

Poggendorff Johann Christian
German physicist (1796-1877). An excellent experimenter, he made many measure instruments among which a galvanometer.

Porro Ignazio
Italian topographer (1801-1873). He elaborated the ensemble of the topographical methods called tachometry. He invented many instruments like the annallatic telescope, the prismatic inverter device for the rectification of the astronomical telescope.

Quincke George Hermann
German physicist (1834-1924). He studied on optics, acoustic and on the capillarity phenomena. Quincke’s tube: apparatus to study the sound interferences.

Righi Augusto
Italian physicist (1850-1920). He studied electricity, magnetism, and the electromagnetic waves. R. oscillator.

Roberval Gilles Personne (de)
French mathematician (1602-1685). He discovered the equal-arm balance is based on.

Rœngten Wilhelm Conrad
German physicist (1845-1923). He discovered the existence of X rays. Nobel Prize for physics.

RuhmKorff Heinrich Daniel
German electromechanician (1803-1877). He built the induction coil. Nobel Prize for physics.

Rumford Benjamin Thompson
Chemist and physicist of the United States (1753-1814). He made researches on the equivalence between heat and mechanical energy and on the heat of combustion and heat of vaporization.

Sartorius Florentz
German maker (1846-1925).

Savart Félix
French physicist (1791-1841). He made researches in acoustics and electromagnetism. Biot-Savart’s law and Savart’s wheel.

Schweigger Johann Salomo Cristoph
Chemist (1779-1857). He invented the multiplier that highlights the interaction between a current and a magnetic needle.

Seebeck Thomas
German physicist (1770-1831). He discovered the thermoelectric effect. Seebeck’s siren.

Segner Johann Andreas
German mathematician and physicist (1704-1777). He studied logics problems, physics and medicine. Besides he studied the functioning of a rudimentary hydraulic turbine.

s'Gravesande Robert James
Dutch mathematician and physicist (1688-1742). He conceived the first heliostat and a device to test the thermal expansion of the bodies.

Tesla Nikola
Croatian physicist (1857-1943). He made researches on the currents at high and very high frequencies.

Thomson Elihu
U.S. engineer (1853-1937). He studied electricity and he was one of the most prolific inventors in the USA.

Thomson William (Lord Kelvin)
English physicist and mathematician (1824-1907). He studied thermodynamics, and electricity. He made much invention among which: an absolute electrometer and an astatic galvanometer.

Traube Moritz
German physiologist and chemist (1826-1894). He proposed the chemical theory that studies the process of muscular actions.

Tyndall John
Irish physicist (1820-1893). He studied geology and the magnetism of crystals.

Varignon Pierre
French mathematician (1654-1722). He was the first who proposed the rule of the concurrent forces.

Volta Alessandro
Italian physicist (1745-1827). Italian physicist (1745-1827). He made remarkable studies on electricity. (Volta’s laws). He invented the eudiometer and the pile that bears his name.

Waltenhoffen Adalbert Carl (von)
Austrian physicist(1828-1914). He studied electricity, magnetism and electronics. W. pendulum.

Watt James
Scottish inventor (1734-1829). He perfected Necomen’s engine by making it practical use.

German physicist(1871-1944). He gave several contributions in the field of electronics.

Wheatstone Charles
English physicist (1802-1875). He invented the stereoscope. Wheatstone bridge for the measure of the resistances.

Whimshurst James
English Engineer (1832-1903). He invented the electrostatic machine that bears his name.

Winter Carl
Austrian electrostatic machines maker.

Wollaston William
English chemist and physicist (1766-1828). He discovered the palladium and the rhodium. He observed the ultraviolet radiation and he was the first to discover the spectral lines on the Sun.

Zamboni Giuseppe
Venetian priest and physicist (1776-1846). He invented the dry cell that bears his name.