Makers and inventors
- German physicist and astronomer (1840-1905). He improved the microscope
and he invented the prism that bears his name.
Æpinus (Franz Maria Ulrich Theodosius Hoch)
- German doctor (1724-1802). He
imagined the first electric capacitor that bears his name.
Amici Giovanni Battista
- Italian astronomer, optician, naturalist and engineer
(1786-1863). He built very perfect achromatic microscopes, some optical instruments of great
interest. He studied fertilization of plants and on the vegetal pathology. He described some
muscular fibres that bear his name.
Arago Jean François Dominique
- French physicist and astronomer (1786-1853). In
1811 He discovered the chromatic polarisation of the light, in 1817 with Fresnel it discovered
circular polarisation, and in 1819 he enunciated the law on the interference of polarised
- Siracusan mathematician and physicist (287-213 B.C.). He was among the
greatest in Ancient Times. His name is connected to studies and inventions as: then lever, the
burton, worm, hydrostatics, the calculus of volumes and areas.
d'Arsonval Jacques Arsène
- French physiologist(1851 - 1940)
Ampère André Marie
- French physicist (1775 -1836). He studied physics, chemistry,
mathematics and natural sciences. He made fundamental researches on electrodynamics. Laws on
- English (1776 - 1862). He built the prototype of the electric engine
called Barlow wheel. He perfected the achromatic telescope.
- French chemist (1728-1804). He built the areometer that bears his
Beccaria Giovanni Battista
- Italian Physicist (1716-1781). He made researches on
electrostatics and geodesy. Professor at the Turin the University.
Bell Alexandr Graham
- USA (1774-1922). He patented the telephone.
- French physicist and astronomer (1774-1862). Il fit de recherches
sur l’électromagnétisme et sur la polarisation de la lumière.
- French (1808-1884). He invented the metallic manometer with the
curved tube and a type of aneroid barometer.
- Irish chemist and physicist (1627 - 1691). With Mariotte in 1662 he
enunciated the law that bears their name.
Braun Karl Ferdinand
- German scientist (1850-1918). He made researches on
electricity and on radio transmission. He invented the tube for the study of cathode rays
from which derive the oscillators and the cathode rays thermoelectric tubes. Nobel Prize in
- French watchmaker (1804-1885). He built many instruments among
which the electric telegraph with two needles, and at Foucault’s request toothed wheel to
measure the light speed.
- English physics professor (1781-1868). He wrote an optics treatise
and He studied crystallography and descriptive mineralogy.
Bunsen Robert Wilhem
- German chemist and physicist (1811-1899). He invented many
instruments: the burner, the calorimeter, and the support.
Cagniard de la Tour Charles
- Physicist French (1777-1859). He invented the siren,
so called because it works in the air and in the water.
- English chemist and physicist (1731-1810). He studied the
hydrogen, the composition of air and of water and He obtained the atmospheric nitrogen
fixation. He invented the torsion balance that bears his name.
- German physicist (1756-1828). He studied acoustics.
Coulomb Charles Augustin
- French physicist (1736-1806). He studied electricity
and magnetism. Coulomb Law. Theorem of Coulomb.
- English physicist and chemist (1832-1919). He isolated thallium;
he invented the spinthariscope, the radiometer, the method of amalgamation of sodium to
separate gold and silver from minerals and the high vacuum tubes that bears his name.
Daniel John Frederic
- English physicist (1790-1845). He studied electrolysis and
meteorology. He invented the hygrometer and a cell with a depolarising liquid.
- English chemist (1778-1829). He isolated sodium, polonium and
calcium and he made electromechanical researches on the nitrogen compounds. He invented the
safety lamp for miners.
De La Rive Auguste Arthur
- Swiss physicist (1801-1873). He was one of the founders
of the electrochemical theory of the batteries.
- French philosopher and mathematician (1596-1650). We owe him
the method of the coordinates that allow the passage from algebra to geometry and vice versa.
He gave great contributions to optics and mechanics.
Despretz César Mansuète
- French physicist (1789-1863). He studied the carbon arc
and made researches on the elastic and thermal properties of fluids.
- French biologist (1776-1847). He is one of the founders of the
biology. He wrote works on the osmosis, on the diapedesis and so on.
- Dutch doctor (1860-1927). He gave fundamental contributions in
cardiology. He set up the electrocardiograph. String galvanometer of E.
Fahrenheit Daniel Gabriel
- German physicist (1686-1736). He invented the F.
temperature scale and the F. hydrometer
- English physicist (1791-1867). He discovered that mobile
magnets and varying currents induce currents in metallic conductors. He introduced the field
concept. He enunciated the electrolysis laws. He discovered the action of the magnetic field
on a polarised light. Faraday's Hood.
- Italian engineer and physicist (1847-1897). He discovered the
principle of the rotating magnetic field that allowed the construction of electric motors. He
built the first model of them in 1885. He studied the alternate currents and the transmission
of electric energy.
- French physicist (1819-1868). With the pendulum that bears his
name he demonstrated the Earth rotation experimentally. With Fizeau he measured light speed.
He discovered the induced currents that bear his name.
- Statesman, physicist and writer of United States (1706-1790).
He made researches on the electric phenomena that he allowed to discover the needle capacity
and to build the lighting rod.
Fresnel Augustin Jean
- French physicist and mathematician (1788-1827). He made
researches on the propagation of the light. He proposed a mathematical theory to explain many
- Italian scientist (1564-1642). He is considered one of the
founders of the experimental method. He enunciated the inertia principle, the laws on the fall
of the bodies and the isochronisms of the pendulum. For religious raisons, he was obliged to
repudiate the Copernican theory
- English naturalist (1822-1911). He built a whistle to study the
limits of audibility.
- Italian doctor (17361798). He observed that he could produce
contractions by touching the muscles of a skinned frog with a bimetallic arc. (The explanation
of the phenomenon was given by Volta). He studies are n the basis of modern electrophysiology.
- German physicist (1815-1879). He invented the tube with two
electrodes containing a rarefied gas in which an electric discharge provokes a great
luminosity. They are used for neon signs.
Gramme Zénobe Théophile
- Belgian maker (1826-1901). He made the first commercial
Guericke Otto von
- German physicist (1602-1686). He built a vacuum pump for
researches on the atmospheric pressure. His experiment with the Magdebourg hemispheres is
Hefner-Alteneck Friedrich (von)
- German electrochemist (1845-1904). He brought many technical
and building technical improvements to the dynamo and to electric engines.
Heron of Alexandria
- Greek mathematician and engineer (II sec B.C.). To him we
owe formula for the calculus of area of a triangle by using the sides. He studied the
properties of the siphons, and invented the eliopile.
Hertz Heinrich Rudolf
- German physicist (1857-1894). He is fundamental for the
discovery of the electromagnetic waves. He succeeds in obtaining them by provoking oscillating
discharges of very high frequency and they by picking them up with detecting circuits.
- German physicist (1836-1893). He made studies on electrical
phenomena. In 1865 he invented the engine that bears his name.
Hope Thomas Charles
- English chemist (1766-1844). Hope’s experiment shows
that water reaches its maximum density at 4° centigrade.
Hughes David Edward
- English (1831-1900). English (1831-1900). He invented a
writing telegraph and the carbon microphone.
- Dutch naturalist (1730-1799). He discovered chlorophyll
photosynthesis. He studied thermal conductivity.
Joule James Prescott
- English physicist (1818-1889). He introduced and measured
the thermal equivalent of the work. Joule’s effect of the currents. The Joule-Thomsom effect
on the decreasing of the temperature of a gas in an adiabatic expansion.
Kirchhoff Gustav Robert Georg
- German physicist e mathematician (1822-1887). He
proposed the laws of the circuits and of the emittance of the blackbody. He proposed a new f
ormulation of thermodynamics laws. With Bunsen invented the spectroscope and this led to the
discovery of curium and the rubidium thanks to the spectral analysis.
Kohlraush Friedrich Wilhem Georg
- German physicist (1840-1910). He was interested
in electricity, magnetism and optics and built many instruments.
- French physicist of German origin (1832-1901). In Paris he
founded a workshop for building instruments to study the sounds. Among the other things he
invented the manometric capsule.
- German physicist (1839-1894). He studied the waves. Kundt’s tube
for standing waves.
- English chemist (1743-1807).
Laplace Pierre Simon de
- French astronomer and mathematician (1749-1827). He made
important researches on celestial mechanics and he gave remarkable contributions in
Laurent Léon Louis
- French optician and precision mechanic (1840-1909). He built
many measure and precision instruments and in particular the polarimeter that bears his name.
Lavoisier Antoine Laurent
- French scientist (1743-1792). He is considered as the
founder of modern chemistry.
- French engineer (1839-1882). He invented the cell that
bears his name.
- Scottish physicist e mathematician (1766-1832). He invented the
Lissajous Jule Antoine
- French physicist (1822-1880). He made researches on
optics and on acoustics. Lissajous figures.
Lodge Oliver Joseph
- English physicist (1851-1940). He studied electro physics
and in particular electrical discharges.
- German physicist (1860-1923). He studied optics and photometry.
- German inventor (1772-1838). He invented many musical
instruments and the metronome.
- Italian scientist and inventor (1874-1937). In 1901 he opened
the first radio connection between Great Britain and North America. Nobel Prize en 1909.
- French physicist (1620-1648). He made researches on the mechanics of
the gases. Boyle-Mariotte law.
Mascart Eleutère Elie
- French physicist (1837-1908). He made researches on
magnetism and on atmospheric electricity.
Maxwell James Clerk
- English physicist and mathematician (1831-1879). He
proposed the theory on electromagnetism and studied the kinetic theory of the gases.
- Italian physicist (1798-1845). He studied the propagation of
the heat for irradiation and on the absorption and the emission of the heat by the bodies.
- German chemist (1806-1879). He studied on chemistry and on
Morse Samuel Finley Breese
- Inventor of the United States (1791-1872). In 1884
he made the first electric telegraph.
- English physicist and mathematician (1642-1777). He enunciated
the mechanics laws. He made important researches on the light. In mathematics he is considered,
with Leibniz, the founder of calculus.
- English physicist (1753-1815). He discovered the electrolysis
phenomenon without giving a good interpretation.
- Italian physicist (1787-1835). He built the first thermopile
and invented a type of galvanometer with high sensibility.
- German chemist (1853-1932). Director of the institute of chemistry
and physics in Leipzig, he was interested in thermodynamics. Nobel Prize for the chemistry.
Oersted Hans Christian
- Danish physicist (1777-1851). He discovered the
interaction between current and magnet. He invented the piezometer.
- Italian physicist (1841-1912). He invented the ring prototype
of the generators of electric current and of electric engines.
- Italian physicist (1807-1896). Director of the astronomic
observatory of Naples.
- French scientist and philosopher (1623-1662). He studied the
vacuum, the atmospheric pressure, and the liquids equilibrium. He was interested in the
probability theory. He built the first model of calculator.
Plateau Joseph Antoine Ferdinand
- Belgian physicist (1810-1883). He studied the
liquid plates and the shape of liquid masses in rotation. He made the phenachistoscope and in
the same times as S. Stampfer the stroboscope.
- German mathematician (1801-1868). His studies regarded the
geometry (pluckerian coordinates). In physics he made researches on the magnetic properties of
the crystals and on the electric discharges in the gases.
Poggendorff Johann Christian
- German physicist (1796-1877). An excellent experimenter,
he made many measure instruments among which a galvanometer.
- Italian topographer (1801-1873). He elaborated the ensemble of
the topographical methods called tachometry. He invented many instruments like the annallatic
telescope, the prismatic inverter device for the rectification of the astronomical telescope.
Quincke George Hermann
- German physicist (1834-1924). He studied on optics,
acoustic and on the capillarity phenomena. Quincke’s tube: apparatus to study the sound
- Italian physicist (1850-1920). He studied electricity, magnetism, and
the electromagnetic waves. R. oscillator.
Roberval Gilles Personne (de)
- French mathematician (1602-1685). He discovered the
equal-arm balance is based on.
Rœngten Wilhelm Conrad
- German physicist (1845-1923). He discovered the
existence of X rays. Nobel Prize for physics.
RuhmKorff Heinrich Daniel
- German electromechanician (1803-1877). He built the
induction coil. Nobel Prize for physics.
Rumford Benjamin Thompson
- Chemist and physicist of the United States (1753-1814).
He made researches on the equivalence between heat and mechanical energy and on the heat of
combustion and heat of vaporization.
- German maker (1846-1925).
- French physicist (1791-1841). He made researches in acoustics and
electromagnetism. Biot-Savart’s law and Savart’s wheel.
Schweigger Johann Salomo Cristoph
- Chemist (1779-1857). He invented the
multiplier that highlights the interaction between a current and a magnetic needle.
- German physicist (1770-1831). He discovered the thermoelectric
effect. Seebeck’s siren.
Segner Johann Andreas
- German mathematician and physicist (1704-1777). He studied
logics problems, physics and medicine. Besides he studied the functioning of a rudimentary
s'Gravesande Robert James
- Dutch mathematician and physicist (1688-1742). He
conceived the first heliostat and a device to test the thermal expansion of the bodies.
- Croatian physicist (1857-1943). He made researches on the currents
at high and very high frequencies.
- U.S. engineer (1853-1937). He studied electricity and he was one
of the most prolific inventors in the USA.
Thomson William (Lord Kelvin)
- English physicist and mathematician (1824-1907).
He studied thermodynamics, and electricity. He made much invention among which: an absolute
electrometer and an astatic galvanometer.
- German physiologist and chemist (1826-1894). He proposed the
chemical theory that studies the process of muscular actions.
- Irish physicist (1820-1893). He studied geology and the magnetism
- French mathematician (1654-1722). He was the first who proposed
the rule of the concurrent forces.
- Italian physicist (1745-1827). Italian physicist (1745-1827).
He made remarkable studies on electricity. (Volta’s laws). He invented the eudiometer and
the pile that bears his name.
Waltenhoffen Adalbert Carl (von)
- Austrian physicist(1828-1914). He studied
electricity, magnetism and electronics. W. pendulum.
- Scottish inventor (1734-1829). He perfected Necomen’s engine by
making it practical use.
- German physicist(1871-1944). He gave several contributions in the
field of electronics.
- English physicist (1802-1875). He invented the stereoscope.
Wheatstone bridge for the measure of the resistances.
- Whimshurst James
- English Engineer (1832-1903). He invented the
electrostatic machine that bears his name.
- Austrian electrostatic machines maker.
- English chemist and physicist (1766-1828). He discovered the
palladium and the rhodium. He observed the ultraviolet radiation and he was the first to
discover the spectral lines on the Sun.
- Zamboni Giuseppe
- Venetian priest and physicist (1776-1846). He invented the
dry cell that bears his name.